Cancer patients' barriers to pain management and psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Barriers Questionnaire II

Scand J Caring Sci. 2009 Sep;23(3):518-28. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00639.x. Epub 2008 Dec 1.


The Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) was developed to assess barriers to effective pain management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BQ-II in a sample of Norwegian cancer patients. The BQ-II was translated into Norwegian and pilot tested with eight oncology outpatients. Then, a convenience sample of 321 cancer patients from two different sites was recruited to maximize the number of questionnaires available for the psychometric analyses. Patients were included if they: were >18 years of age; had a diagnosis of cancer; and self-reported pain and/or use of analgesics. Construct validity of the Norwegian version of the BQ II (NBQ-II) was evaluated using an exploratory factor analysis. A seven-factor solution was found that was more consistent with the original version of the BQ. Construct validity of the NBQ-II was demonstrated through positive correlations between most of the subscale and total scores on the NBQ-II and pain intensity and pain interference scores. Finally, Cronbach's α coefficients of ≥0.7 for six of the seven subscales and 0.89 for the total scale demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency. In conclusion, the NBQ-II demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. However, further revision and testing of the questionnaire should be performed to confirm the factor structure that was identified in this study.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / complications*
  • Norway
  • Pain Management / methods*
  • Psychometrics*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*