Descriptions of the upper limb skeleton of Homo floresiensis

J Hum Evol. 2009 Nov;57(5):555-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.06.007. Epub 2008 Dec 4.


Several bones of the upper extremity were recovered during excavations of Late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua, Flores, and these have been attributed to Homo floresiensis. At present, these upper limb remains have been assigned to six different individuals - LB1, LB2, LB3, LB4, LB5, and LB6. Several of these bones are complete or nearly so, but some are quite fragmentary. All skeletal remains recovered from Liang Bua were extremely fragile, but have now been stabilized and hardened in the laboratory in Jakarta. They are now curated in museum-quality containers at the National Research and Development Centre for Archaeology in Jakarta, Indonesia. These skeletal remains are described and illustrated photographically. The upper limb presents a unique mosaic of derived (human-like) and primitive morphologies, the combination of which is never found in either healthy or pathological modern humans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bones of Upper Extremity / anatomy & histology*
  • Fossils*
  • Hominidae / anatomy & histology*
  • Hominidae / classification*
  • Hominidae / genetics
  • Humans
  • Indonesia