Histone H1 and its isoforms: contribution to chromatin structure and function

Gene. 2009 Feb 15;431(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2008.11.003. Epub 2008 Nov 14.


The lysine-rich H1 histone family in mammals includes eleven different subtypes, and thus it is the most divergent class of histone proteins. The central globular H1 domain asymmetrically interacts with DNA at the exit or entry end of the nucleosomal core DNA, and the C-terminal domain has a major impact on the linker DNA conformation and chromatin condensation. H1 histones are thus involved in the formation of higher order chromatin structures, and they modulate the accessibility of regulatory proteins, chromatin remodeling factors and histone modification enzymes to their target sites. The major posttranslational modification of H1 histones is phosphorylation, which reaches a peak during G2 and mitosis. Phosphorylation is, however, also involved in the control of DNA replication and it contributes to the regulation of gene expression. Disruption of linker histone genes, initially performed in order to delineate subtype-specific functions, revealed that disruption of one or two H1 subtype genes is quantitatively compensated by an increased expression of other subtypes. This suggests a functional redundancy among H1 subtypes. However, the inactivation of three subtypes and the reduction of the H1 moiety in half finally resulted in a phenotypic effect. On the other hand, studies on the role of particular subtypes at specific developmental stages in lower eukaryotes, but also in vertebrates suggest that specific subtypes of H1 participate in particular systems of gene regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Chromatin / chemistry*
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Histones / chemistry
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Mammals / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Isoforms / chemistry
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism


  • Chromatin
  • Histones
  • Protein Isoforms