Alcohol environments and disparities in exposure associated with adolescent drinking in California

Am J Public Health. 2009 Feb;99(2):264-70. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.122077. Epub 2008 Dec 4.


Objectives: We investigated sociodemographic disparities in alcohol environments and their relationship with adolescent drinking.

Methods: We geocoded and mapped alcohol license data with ArcMap to construct circular buffers centered at 14 595 households with children that participated in the California Health Interview Survey. We calculated commercial sources of alcohol in each buffer. Multivariate logistic regression differentiated the effects of alcohol sales on adolescents' drinking from their individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics.

Results: Alcohol availability, measured by mean and median number of licenses, was significantly higher around residences of minority and lower-income families. Binge drinking and driving after drinking among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were significantly associated with the presence of alcohol retailers within 0.5 miles of home. Simulation of changes in the alcohol environment showed that if alcohol sales were reduced from the mean number of alcohol outlets around the lowest-income quartile of households to that of the highest quartile, prevalence of binge drinking would fall from 6.4% to 5.6% and driving after drinking from 7.9% to 5.9%.

Conclusions: Alcohol outlets are concentrated in disadvantaged neighborhoods and can contribute to adolescent drinking. To reduce underage drinking, environmental interventions need to curb opportunities for youth to obtain alcohol from commercial sources by tightening licensure, enforcing minimum-age drinking laws, or other measures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Alcoholic Beverages / economics*
  • California / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Commerce* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Licensure
  • Male
  • Social Class*