Cancer survivorship is an emerging area of scientific and clinical interest. Several decades ago, most people diagnosed with cancer did not live long beyond their initial diagnosis. Today the number of cancer survivors exceeds ten million, and this group may experience unique healthcare issues related to their cancer treatment. Chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy each have their own late and long-term complications. It is imperative for clinicians who are caring for cancer survivors to be aware of long-term complications of therapy and to treat these appropriately. When cancer therapy has successfully added years of life, it is equally as important that medical care assures the best quality of life during those years.