Background: Alcoholic decoction of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) seed is traditionally used for the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity by the natives of South-West Nigeria. Despite its ancestral use, scientific validations of its therapeutic uses in the management of these conditions are lacking.
Objectives: The present preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate blood glucose and lipid lowering effects as well as cardiovascular disease risk factor-reducing effect of Citrus paradisi Macfad (100% methanol seed extract) in male Wistar rats.
Methods: Rats, divided into groups I - V, with 6 rats in each group, were gavaged at the dose levels of 10 ml/kg/day of distilled water, 10 ml/kg of body weight/day of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 100, 300, and 600 mg/kg of body weight/ day of the extract dissolved in 10 ml/kg DMSO, respectively, for 30 days. On day 31, blood samples obtained were assayed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) using standard procedures. Cardiovascular disease risk assessing factors such as obesity or body mass index (BMI), atherogenic index (AI), coronary risk index (CRI) were calculated.
Results: Results showed significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) dose related lowering effects of the extract on FPG, cardiovascular disease risk assessing indices and lipid parameters except HDL-c fraction which was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) elevated. The extract also induced significant (p < 0.05) dose related weight loss in the treated rats in the latter 15 days of their treatment.
Conclusion: These results, therefore, lend support to its therapeutic potentials in the management of suspected type 2 diabetic patients.