Methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad lowers blood glucose, lipids and cardiovascular disease risk indices in normal Wistar rats

Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2008 Jan-Mar;18(1):16-20. doi: 10.4314/nqjhm.v18i1.44950.


Background: Alcoholic decoction of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) seed is traditionally used for the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity by the natives of South-West Nigeria. Despite its ancestral use, scientific validations of its therapeutic uses in the management of these conditions are lacking.

Objectives: The present preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate blood glucose and lipid lowering effects as well as cardiovascular disease risk factor-reducing effect of Citrus paradisi Macfad (100% methanol seed extract) in male Wistar rats.

Methods: Rats, divided into groups I - V, with 6 rats in each group, were gavaged at the dose levels of 10 ml/kg/day of distilled water, 10 ml/kg of body weight/day of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 100, 300, and 600 mg/kg of body weight/ day of the extract dissolved in 10 ml/kg DMSO, respectively, for 30 days. On day 31, blood samples obtained were assayed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) using standard procedures. Cardiovascular disease risk assessing factors such as obesity or body mass index (BMI), atherogenic index (AI), coronary risk index (CRI) were calculated.

Results: Results showed significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) dose related lowering effects of the extract on FPG, cardiovascular disease risk assessing indices and lipid parameters except HDL-c fraction which was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) elevated. The extract also induced significant (p < 0.05) dose related weight loss in the treated rats in the latter 15 days of their treatment.

Conclusion: These results, therefore, lend support to its therapeutic potentials in the management of suspected type 2 diabetic patients.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol, HDL / drug effects
  • Cholesterol, LDL / drug effects
  • Citrus paradisi*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Seeds*
  • Weight Loss / drug effects*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Plant Extracts