Complete worldwide operative experience in laparoscopic diaphragm pacing: results and differences in spinal cord injured patients and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

Surg Endosc. 2009 Jul;23(7):1433-40. doi: 10.1007/s00464-008-0223-3. Epub 2008 Dec 6.


Background: Diaphragm movement is essential for adequate ventilation, and when the diaphragm is adversely affected patients face lifelong positive-pressure mechanical ventilation or death. This report summarizes the complete worldwide multicenter experience with diaphragm pacing stimulation (DPS) to maintain and provide diaphragm function in ventilator-dependent spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and respiratory-compromised patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It will highlight the surgical experiences and the differences in diaphragm function in these two groups of patients.

Methods: In prospective Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trials, patients underwent laparoscopic diaphragm motor point mapping with intramuscular electrode implantation. Stimulation of the electrodes ensued to condition and strengthen the diaphragm.

Results: From March of 2000 to September of 2007, a total of 88 patients (50 SCI and 38 ALS) were implanted with DPS at five sites. Patient age ranged from 18 to 74 years. Time from SCI to implantation ranged from 3 months to 27 years. In 87 patients the diaphragm motor point was mapped with successful implantation of electrodes with the only failure the second SCI patient who had a false-positive phrenic nerve study. Patients with ALS had much weaker diaphragms identified surgically, requiring trains of stimulation during mapping to identify the motor point at times. There was no perioperative mortality even in ALS patients with forced vital capacity (FVC) below 50% predicted. There was no cardiac involvement from diaphragm pacing even when analyzed in ten patients who had pre-existing cardiac pacemakers. No infections occurred even with simultaneous gastrostomy tube placements for ALS patients. In the SCI patients 96% were able to use DPS to provide ventilation replacing their mechanical ventilators and in the ALS studies patients have been able to delay the need for mechanical ventilation up to 24 months.

Conclusion: This multicenter experience has shown that laparoscopic diaphragm motor point mapping, electrode implantation, and pacing can be safely performed both in SCI and in ALS. In SCI patients it allows freedom from ventilator and in ALS patients it delays the need for ventilators, increasing survival.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / complications*
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / physiopathology
  • Diaphragm / innervation
  • Diaphragm / physiopathology*
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / instrumentation
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
  • Electrodes, Implanted*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy / methods*
  • Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiration, Artificial
  • Respiratory Paralysis / etiology
  • Respiratory Paralysis / therapy*
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / complications*
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology
  • Young Adult