A meta-analysis on the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in 27881 hepatocellular carcinomas from 90 studies confirmed wide international variations. A predominance of HBsAg was found in hepatocellular carcinomas from most Asian, African and Latin American countries, but anti-HCV predominated in Europe, North America, Japan, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Egypt. Anti-HCV was found more often than HBsAg in Europe and the United States. Twenty-five years after having been licensed, HBV vaccination programmes are now carried out in 158 countries, but they have yet to reach many high-risk populations in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In the absence of a vaccine, the prevention of HCV infection requires an integrated strategy (i.e., screening of blood donations, safe injection practices, and avoidance of unnecessary injections).