Background and objectives: Mipomersen sodium (ISIS 301012) is a 20-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that is complementary to human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) messenger RNA and subsequently reduces translation of ApoB-100 protein, the major apolipoprotein of very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Mipomersen sodium is currently being studied in phase II/III clinical studies to determine its clinical utility as add-on therapy to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or other lipid-lowering agents in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic interactions of mipomersen sodium with simvastatin and ezetimibe. Another aim was to evaluate the ability of mipomersen sodium to inhibit major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in vitro.
Methods: In a phase I clinical study, ten healthy subjects per cohort received a single oral dose of simvastatin 40 mg or ezetimibe 10 mg followed by four 2-hour intravenous doses of mipomersen sodium 200 mg over an 8-day period, with simvastatin 40 mg or ezetimibe 10 mg being administered again with the last dose of mipomersen sodium. Mipomersen sodium pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed following the first dose (mipomersen sodium alone) and the last dose (mipomersen sodium in combination with simvastatin or ezetimibe). Plasma samples for measurement of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and free and total ezetimibe concentrations were collected at various timepoints following their first and last oral dosing. A comparative pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to determine if there were any effects resulting from coadministration of mipomersen sodium with these lipid-lowering drugs. In addition to the clinical pharmacokinetic analysis, the ability of mipomersen sodium to inhibit the major CYP isoform enzymes (namely CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was evaluated in cryo-preserved human hepatocytes in vitro.
Results: The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 24 hours (AUC(24)), maximum plasma concentration and apparent elimination half-life values of mipomersen sodium were similar when administered alone and in combination with oral simvastatin or oral ezetimibe. The 90% confidence intervals of the geometric least squares means ratios (%Reference) of the mipomersen sodium AUC(24) values were 93.6, 107 when administered together with simvastatin, and 92.4, 111 when administered with ezetimibe. Therefore, there were no large deviations outside the default no-effect boundaries (80-125%) for total exposure (the AUC) of mipomersen sodium in combination with either simvastatin or ezetimibe. Similarly, large deviations outside the default no-effect boundaries were not observed for simvastatin, simvastatin acid, or free and total ezetimibe exposure in combination with mipomersen sodium. In cryo-preserved human hepatocytes, mipomersen sodium exhibited no cytotoxicity. Significant cell uptake was demonstrated by analysing cell-associated concentrations of mipomersen sodium. All evaluated enzyme activities had <10% inhibition at tested concentrations up to 800 microg/mL (approximately 100 micromol/L) of mipomersen sodium, and dose-dependent inhibition was not observed. Therefore, mipomersen sodium is not considered an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities.
Conclusions: These data provide evidence that mipomersen sodium exhibits no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions with the disposition and clearance of simvastatin or ezetimibe, and vice versa. Moreover, mipomersen sodium does not inhibit any of the major CYP enzymes that were evaluated. Taken together, the results from this study support the use of mipomersen sodium in combination with oral lipid-lowering agents.