Autoimmunity to brain could play an etiopathogenic role in a subgroup of autistic patients. The frequency of serum anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies, as an index for autoimmunity to brain, and their relation to family history of autoimmunity were investigated in 32 autistic and 32 healthy matched children. Autistic children had significantly higher serum anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies than healthy children (2100  and 1138 [87.5] Buhlmann titre unit, P < .001). Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein positivity was elicited in 62.5% of autistic children. Family history of autoimmunity in autistic children (50%) was significantly higher than controls (9.4%). Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein serum levels were significantly higher in autistic children with than those without such history (P < .05). In conclusion, autism could be, in part, one of the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders. Further studies are warranted to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies and the role of immunotherapy in autism.