The influence of obesity and metabolic risk variables on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in healthy adolescents

J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Jul;23(7):444-50. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2008.143. Epub 2008 Dec 11.


Measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is recognized as a simple and practical method for assessing arterial stiffness. We determined whether the baPWV of adolescents is affected by obesity and its associated metabolic risk variables. A cross-sectional sample of 754 apparently healthy adolescents (383 men and 371 women), aged 15-17 years, was recruited for this study. baPWV was measured by a simple automatic oscillometric technique. Adiposity measures, blood pressure, serum lipoproteins, fasting glucose and insulin were evaluated. The baPWV of the adolescents was significantly higher in men than in women and increased with age in both genders. After being statistically adjusted for age and gender, baPWV was significantly correlated with body mass index, percent body fat, waist-to-height ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, mean arterial pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), atherogenic index, glucose, insulin, and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In the multivariate regression analysis, mean arterial pressure, atherogenic index, HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure and age were found to be significant determinants of baPWV (P<0.001). An increasing number of clustered risk variables, including high values (>gender-specific top quartiles) of waist-to-height ratio, mean arterial pressure, atherogenic index and HOMA-IR showed a graded association with baPWV (P<0.001 for trend). These results suggest that obesity and its associated metabolic abnormalities are important factors in the increased baPWV of adolescents and that baPWV may be useful in investigating early arterial wall changes in this population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Ankle / blood supply*
  • Atherosclerosis / diagnosis
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Brachial Artery / physiopathology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Pulsatile Flow
  • Sex Characteristics