Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 12 (2), 229-34

Bi-stable Neural State Switches


Bi-stable Neural State Switches

André Berndt et al. Nat Neurosci.


Here we describe bi-stable channelrhodopsins that convert a brief pulse of light into a stable step in membrane potential. These molecularly engineered probes nevertheless retain millisecond-scale temporal precision. Photocurrents can be precisely initiated and terminated with different colors of light, but operate at vastly longer time scales than conventional channelrhodopsins as a result of modification at the C128 position that extends the lifetime of the open state. Because of their enhanced kinetic stability, these step-function tools are also effectively responsive to light at orders of magnitude lower intensity than wild-type channelrhodopsins. These molecules therefore offer important new capabilities for a broad range of in vivo applications.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 204 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Biochemistry. 1989 Sep 19;28(19):7800-5 - PubMed
    1. Nature. 2007 Apr 5;446(7136):633-9 - PubMed
    1. Nat Methods. 2007 Feb;4(2):139-41 - PubMed
    1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Nov 25;100(24):13940-5 - PubMed
    1. Curr Biol. 2005 Dec 20;15(24):2279-84 - PubMed

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources