Despite improvements in the identification of causes of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic polyneuropathy remains common. Medication and toxic neuropathy account for a small but important percentage of potentially preventable or reversible causes of neuropathy. New drugs that can induce neuropathy have been approved over the past several years, including the anticancer agents bortezomib, ixabepilone, and oxaliplatin. We review the neurotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers infliximab and etanercept, the inflammatory arthritis agent leflunomide, and the antibiotic linezolid. The controversy of statin-induced neuropathy continues to unfold; the large Fremantle Diabetes Study has suggested that statins may have neuroprotective effects. Dichloroacetate is a promising agent for lactic acidosis-associated disorders, but toxic neuropathy is a treatment-limiting factor. We also describe a progressive inflammatory neuropathy in swine slaughterhouse workers that appears to be a toxin-induced immune response.