Swine influenza viruses a North American perspective

Adv Virus Res. 2008;72:127-54. doi: 10.1016/S0065-3527(08)00403-X.


Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease that represents a health and economic threat to both humans and animals worldwide. Swine influenza (SI) was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern U.S., in 1918, coinciding with the human influenza pandemic known as the Spanish flu. Since that time SI has remained of importance to the swine industry throughout the world. In this review, the epidemiology of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection in North American pigs is described in detail. The first 80 years of SI remained relatively static, whereas the last decade has become dynamic with the establishment of many emerging subtypes. With the increasing number of novel subtypes and genetic variants, the control of SI has become increasingly difficult and innovative strategies to combat this economically important zoonotic disease are critical. Therefore, protective immune responses against influenza virus infections as well as new paradigms of vaccine development in pigs are discussed in the review. It is expected that the dynamic evolutionary changes of SIVs in North American pigs will continue, making currently available prophylactic approaches of limited use to control the spread and economic losses associated with this important swine pathogen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • North America
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / epidemiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Swine Diseases / prevention & control
  • Swine Diseases / virology
  • Vaccination
  • Zoonoses / epidemiology
  • Zoonoses / virology


  • Influenza Vaccines