Detection of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer patients: methodological pitfalls and clinical relevance

Mol Med. Mar-Apr 2009;15(3-4):101-14. doi: 10.2119/molmed.2008.00116. Epub 2008 Dec 3.

Abstract

Disseminated malignancy is the major cause of prostate cancer-related mortality. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are essential for the establishment of metastasis. Various contemporary and molecular methods using prostate-specific biomarkers have been applied to detect extraprostatic disease that is undetectable by conventional imaging techniques, assessing the risk for disease recurrence after therapy of curative intent. However, the clinical relevance of CTC detection is still controversial. We review current literature regarding molecular methods used for the detection of CTCs in the peripheral blood and bone marrow biopsies of patients with prostate cancer, and we discuss the methodological pitfalls that influence the clinical significance of molecular staging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Antigens, Surface / genetics
  • Antigens, Surface / metabolism
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Body Fluids / cytology
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / genetics
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Keratin-19 / genetics
  • Keratin-19 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Staging*
  • Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism*
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / genetics
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / standards
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / genetics
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology

Substances

  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Antigens, Surface
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Keratin-19
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • PSCA protein, human
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • FOLH1 protein, human
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen