A model-based approach to understanding apraxia in Corticobasal Syndrome

Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Mar;19(1):47-63. doi: 10.1007/s11065-008-9079-5. Epub 2008 Dec 11.


Limb apraxia is a neurological disorder of higher cognitive function characterized by an inability to perform purposeful skilled movements and not attributable to an elementary sensorimotor dysfunction or comprehension difficulty. Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) is an akinetic rigid syndrome with asymmetric onset and progression with at least one basal ganglia feature (rigidity, limb dystonia or myoclonus) and one cortical feature (limb apraxia, alien hand syndrome or cortical sensory loss). Even though limb apraxia is highly prevalent in CBS (70-80%), very few studies have examined the performance of CBS patients on praxis measures in detail. This review aims to (1) briefly summarize the clinical, neuroanatomical and pathological findings in CBS, (2) briefly outline what limb apraxia is and how it is assessed, (3) to comprehensively review the literature on limb apraxia in CBS to date and (4) to briefly summarize the literature on other forms of apraxia, such as limb-kinetic apraxia and buccofacial apraxia. Overall, the goal of the review is to bring a model-based perspective to the findings available in the literature to date on limb apraxia in CBS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Apraxia, Ideomotor / pathology
  • Apraxia, Ideomotor / psychology
  • Apraxias* / pathology
  • Apraxias* / psychology
  • Basal Ganglia Diseases* / pathology
  • Basal Ganglia Diseases* / psychology
  • Brain / pathology
  • Extremities
  • Facial Expression
  • Gestures
  • Humans
  • Imitative Behavior
  • Models, Neurological*
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Syndrome