Recent progress in the analysis of uremic toxins by mass spectrometry

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Sep 1;877(25):2600-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.11.032. Epub 2008 Nov 27.


Mass spectrometry (MS) has been successfully applied for the identification and quantification of uremic toxins and uremia-associated modified proteins. This review focuses on recent progress in the analysis of uremic toxins by using MS. Uremic toxins include low-molecular-weight compounds (e.g., indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid, asymmetric dimethylarginine), middle-molecular-weight peptides, and proteins modified with advanced glycation and oxidation. These uremic toxins are considered to be involved in a variety of symptoms which may appear in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Based on MS analysis of these uremic toxins, the pathogenesis of the uremic symptoms will be elucidated to prevent and manage the symptoms.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Molecular Weight
  • Toxins, Biological / chemistry*
  • Toxins, Biological / urine
  • Uremia / metabolism
  • Uremia / pathology
  • Uremia / urine*


  • Toxins, Biological