Acidic beverages increase the risk of in vitro tooth erosion

Nutr Res. 2008 May;28(5):299-303. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.03.001.


Acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. We report pH and titratable acidities (ie, quantity of base required to bring a solution to neutral pH) of beverages popular in the United States and lesion depths in enamel and root surfaces after beverage exposure, and we describe associations among pH, titratable acidity, and both enamel and root erosive lesion depths. The pH of 100% juices, regular sodas, diet sodas, and sports drinks upon opening and the titratable acidity both upon opening and after 60 minutes of stirring were measured. Enamel and root surfaces of healthy permanent molars and premolars were exposed to individual beverages (4 enamel and 4 root surfaces per beverage) for 25 hours, and erosion was measured. Statistical analyses included 2-sample t tests, analyses of variance with post hoc Tukey studentized range test; and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. All beverages were acidic; the titratable acidity of energy drinks was greater than that of regular and diet sodas that were greater than that of 100% juices and sports drinks (P < .05). Enamel lesion depths after beverage exposures were greatest for Gatorade, followed by those for Red Bull and Coke that were greater than those for Diet Coke and 100% apple juice (P < .05). Root lesion depths were greatest for Gatorade, followed by Red Bull, Coke, 100% apple juice, and Diet Coke (P < .05). Lesion depths were not associated with pH or titratable acidity. Beverages popular in the United States can produce dental erosion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acids / adverse effects*
  • Beverages / adverse effects*
  • Carbonated Beverages / adverse effects
  • Dental Enamel / physiopathology*
  • Dental Enamel Solubility / physiology
  • Fruit / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Tooth / physiopathology*
  • Tooth Demineralization / etiology*
  • Tooth Demineralization / physiopathology
  • Tooth Erosion / etiology*
  • Tooth Erosion / physiopathology


  • Acids