A case-control study involving 1058 women with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 2116 healthy controls, was conducted in Poland between 2004 and 2007. The aim of this study was to examine of the role of familial aggregation of lung cancer in women. Multivariate analysis has shown that family history of lung cancer in a first-degree relative significantly increases the risk of lung cancer (OR=1.61, p=0.0003). For cases with early onset of the disease (<55 years) we observed significantly elevated risk of lung cancer (OR=2.48, p=0.0001). Results of our analysis confirmed synergistic influence of smoking and family history of lung cancer (OR=12.91, p=0.0000).