Milk enriched with "healthy fatty acids" improves cardiovascular risk markers and nutritional status in human volunteers

Nutrition. 2009 Apr;25(4):408-14. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2008.10.008. Epub 2008 Dec 11.


Objective: The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a commercially available milk containing small amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and vitamins A, B6, D, E, and folic acid compared with semi-skimmed and skimmed milk in volunteers with moderate cardiovascular risk.

Methods: Two hundred ninety-seven subjects 25 to 65 y of age with moderate cardiovascular risk were randomly allocated into three groups. In addition to their diets, one group consumed 500 mL/d of the enriched milk, another group consumed 500 mL/d of skimmed milk, and a control group consumed 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk. All groups consumed the dairy drinks for 1 y and blood samples were taken at 0 and 12 mo.

Results: Consumption of enriched milk for 1 y produced significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum folate (58%) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4%). Plasma triacylglycerols (10%), total cholesterol (4%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (6%) were reduced significantly only in the supplemented group. Serum glucose, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein remained unchanged. In the skimmed milk and semi-skimmed milk groups, the only significant decreases were in serum folate (17% and 11%, respectively).

Conclusion: Daily intake of a milk enriched with fish oil, oleic acid, and vitamins improved the nutritional status and cardiovascular risk markers of volunteers, whereas skimmed milk and semi-skimmed milk did not.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Fatty Acids / administration & dosage*
  • Folic Acid / blood
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Milk*
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sterols / blood
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Fatty Acids
  • Sterols
  • Triglycerides
  • Vitamins
  • Homocysteine
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Folic Acid