Predictors of safer sex intentions and protected sex among heterosexual HIV-negative methamphetamine users: an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior

AIDS Care. 2009 Jan;21(1):17-24. doi: 10.1080/09540120802017628.


The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants' amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants' percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<0.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amphetamine-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Attitude to Health
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • HIV Seronegativity*
  • Heterosexuality*
  • Humans
  • Intention*
  • Male
  • Methamphetamine
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Risk
  • Safe Sex / psychology*
  • Safe Sex / statistics & numerical data
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Methamphetamine