There is no consensus on whether or when to stop anticonvulsant drug treatment in patients after apparently successful epilepsy surgery. Although there are compelling reasons to consider antiepileptic drug (AED) discontinuation, there are relatively few data, and no class 1 data, to guide patient and physician decision-making on this topic. This debate lays out a conceptual framework for considering the issue of AED discontinuation, and reviews and critiques the available data. The goal is to provide physicians with the best available data, a context in which to consider it, and a full understanding of its limitations. This article also highlights an area that is ripe for further prospective study.