Three differently made, primary Drosophila cosmid libraries of 16-fold genome coverage have been generated. Also, a jumping library has been created by a new method that takes advantage of methylation differences between genomic DNA and vector. Thirdly, two cDNA libraries have been picked. All these libraries have been arrayed on high-density in situ filters, each containing 9216 clones. As a reference system, such filters are distributed and identified clones are provided. Single-copy probes have identified on average 1.4 cosmids per genome equivalent. Together with cytogenetically mapped yeast artificial chromosomes, the libraries are also being used for physically mapping the genome, mainly by oligonucleotide fingerprinting and pool hybridizations. cDNA clones are further examined by a partial sequencing analysis by oligomer hybridization.