The biochemistry of drug metabolism--an introduction: part 6. Inter-individual factors affecting drug metabolism

Chem Biodivers. 2008 Dec;5(12):2465-578. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.200890214.


This review is part of a series of review articles on the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics published in Chemistry & Biodiversity. After a thorough discussion of metabolic reactions and their enzymes, this article focuses on genetically determined differences in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. After a short introduction on the causes for genetic differences, the first focus is on species differences in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. A major chapter is then dedicated to clinically relevant genetic polymorphisms in human drug metabolism and resultant ethnic differences. The last two chapters deal with sex-dependent differences in drug metabolism and personalized pharmacotherapy related to inter-individual differences in drug metabolism.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / chemistry
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Enzymes / genetics
  • Enzymes / metabolism
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mutation
  • Oxidoreductases / chemistry
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism
  • Pharmacokinetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Rats
  • Sex Factors
  • Species Specificity


  • Enzymes
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Oxidoreductases