Circumcision and sexual behavior: factors independently associated with human papillomavirus detection among men in the HIM study

Int J Cancer. 2009 Mar 15;124(6):1251-7. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24097.


There is growing interest in understanding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related disease among men. To date there have been numerous studies reporting HPV DNA prevalence among men from several different countries, however, few have incorporated multivariable analyses to determine factors independently associated with male HPV detection. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors independently associated with HPV detection in men ages 18-70 years residing in Brazil (n = 343), Mexico (n = 312), and the United States (US) (n = 333). In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum, we evaluated factors associated with any, oncogenic, and nononcogenic HPV infections. In multivariable analyses, detection of any HPV infection was significantly associated with reported race of Asian/Pacific Islander, lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. Oncogenic HPV detection was independently associated with lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. NonOncogenic HPV infection was independently associated with lifetime number of sexual partners. Circumcision, assessed by clinical examination, was associated with reduced risk of HPV detection across all categories of HPV evaluated. HPV detection in men in the current study was strongly related to sexual behavior and circumcision status. Interventions such as circumcision may provide a low-cost method to reduce HPV infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Circumcision, Male
  • Condoms
  • Florida / epidemiology
  • Gammapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Papillomavirus Infections / transmission*
  • Penis / virology
  • Risk Factors
  • Scrotum / virology
  • Sexual Behavior*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult