25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency Is Independently Associated With Cardiovascular Disease in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jul;205(1):255-60. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.10.033. Epub 2008 Nov 11.

Abstract

Objective: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are inversely associated with important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, the association between 25(OH)D levels and prevalent CVD has not been extensively examined in the general population.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and examined the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of CVD in a representative population-based sample of 16,603 men and women aged 18 years or older. Prevalence of CVD was defined as a composite measure inclusive of self-reported angina, myocardial infarction or stroke.

Results: In the whole population, there were 1308 (8%) subjects with self-reported CVD. Participants with CVD had a greater frequency of 25(OH)D deficiency [defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL] than those without (29.3% vs. 21.4%; p<0.0001). After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, season of measurement, physical activity, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, chronic kidney disease and vitamin D use, participants with 25(OH)D deficiency had an increased risk of prevalent CVD (odds ratio 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.36; p=0.03]).

Conclusions: These results indicate a strong and independent relationship of 25(OH)D deficiency with prevalent CVD in a large sample representative of the US adult population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Surveys*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / pathology
  • Nutrition Surveys*
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / pathology
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / metabolism
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*

Substances

  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D