Data concerning the cardiovascular manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are inconsistent, which is due, in part, to the decrease in disease severity over the last several decades. In areas where patients tend to be more symptomatic, data support the presence of cardiovascular findings including myocardial and vascular calcification as well as increased cardiovascular mortality. Data from the cohorts in whom the disease is characterized by mild hypercalcemia, suggest that clinically overt cardiovascular manifestations are unusual in PHPT. Recent data, however, support the presence of subtle cardiovascular manifestations in mild disease, such as changes in endothelial function as well as increased vascular stiffness and perhaps diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular hypertrophy is a more consistent finding across a spectrum of disease severity, though this finding may be related to hypertension, which has long been associated with PHPT.