HIV-1 transgenic mice on the FVB/NJ background (TgFVB) are a well validated model of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). A mapping study between TgFVB and CAST/EiJ (CAST) strains showed this trait to be influenced by a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 3A1-A3 (HIVAN1), with CAST alleles associated with increased risk of disease. We introgressed a 50 Mb interval, encompassing this HIVAN1 locus, from CAST into the TgFVB genome (TgFVB-HIVAN1(CAST) congenic mice). Compared to the TgFVB strain, these congenic mice developed an earlier onset of proteinuria, a rapid progression to kidney failure, and increased mortality. A prospective study of these congenic mice also showed that they had a significantly greater histologic and biochemical evidence of glomerulopathy with one-third of mice developing global glomerulosclerosis by 6 weeks of age. An F2 cross between TgFVB and the congenic mice identified a significant linkage (LOD=3.7) to a 10 cM interval within the HIVAN1 region between D3Mit167 and D3Mit67 resulting in a 60% reduction of the original interval. These data independently confirm that a gene on chromosome 3A1-A3 increases susceptibility to HIVAN, resulting in early onset and rapid progression of kidney disease. These mice represent a new model to study the development and progression of collapsing glomerulopathy.