A 62-year-old man had been followed up for chronic hepatitis B (HB) since 1973. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was detected in 1985, at the age of 42 years. Serum HB surface antigen and anti-HB envelope antibody were positive at that time. A right hepatic lobectomy was performed. In 1995, serum HB surface antigen had cleared spontaneously and liver function had normalized. In March 2005, at the age of 62 years, a 1.5-cm diameter hepatic mass was detected in the left lateral segment. At that time, he was seropositive only for anti-HB core antibody. A diagnosis of recurrent HCC was made, and partial hepatectomy was performed. Covalently closed circular HBV DNA was detected in both cancerous and noncancerous tissues by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cassette-ligation-mediated PCR showed that HBV DNA was integrated into the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene located on chromosome 5p15.