Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensorimotor disorder, with a negative impact in the quality of life and sleep architecture. Despite its reported high prevalence, remains under-recognized and under-treated. The diagnosis is based on the presence of four essential criteria, three supportive clinical features, and other three associated features. The primary or idiopathic RLS is the most common presentation form, but it is very important to exclude other RLS secondary forms and other differential diagnosis. The physiopathology of the idiopathic RLS remains unclear, however changes in the dopamine pathway have been proposed, and justifies the use of dopaminergic agents as first line treatment. Iron therapy, opioids, anti-epileptics (gabapentin) and benzodiazepines are others non-dopaminergic options of treatment in selected patients.