Engagement of the costimulatory protein ICOS activates effector/memory T cells in tissue by enhancing TCR-mediated proliferation and cytokine production. We now report that in an antigen-independent manner, ICOS also induces adhesion and spreading in human effector/memory T cells, consequently inhibiting cell migration. T cell spreading and elongation after ICOS ligation are accompanied by the formation of two types of actin-rich membrane protrusions: thin, finger-like structures similar to filopodia and short, discrete microspikes. Although filopodia/microspike formation occurs independently of the PI-3K signaling cascade, ICOS-mediated T cell elongation depends on PI-3K activity, which inhibits the accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA. Further inhibition of RhoA activation exacerbates the ICOS-mediated, elongated phenotype. We propose that in inflamed tissue, ICOS engagement by ICOS ligand on a professional or nonprofessional APC prevents the forward motility of the T cell by inhibiting RhoA-dependent uropod retraction. The resulting ICOS-induced T cell spreading and filopodia/microspike formation may promote antigen recognition by enhancing a T cell's scanning potential of an adherent APC surface.