Muscle degeneration and leukocyte infiltration caused by mutation of zebrafish Fad24

Dev Dyn. 2009 Jan;238(1):86-99. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21821.


Factor for adipocyte differentiation 24 (fad24) is a novel gene that has been implicated in adipocyte differentiation and DNA replication. In a screen for zebrafish mutants that have an abnormal tissue distribution of neutrophils, we identified an insertional allele of fad24, fad24hi1019. Homozygous fad24hi1019 larvae exhibit muscle degeneration accompanied by leukocyte infiltration. Muscle degeneration was extensive and included tissue apoptosis and disorganized, poorly striated muscle fibers. Blocking apoptosis using pan-caspase inhibitors resulted in decreased neutrophil recruitment into the body of the larva, suggesting a causative link between apoptosis and leukocyte infiltration. These findings suggest that zebrafish is a powerful genetic model system to address the interplay between muscle degeneration and leukocyte infiltration, and indicate that tissue apoptosis may contribute to neutrophil recruitment in some inflammatory states.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Leukocytes / metabolism*
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Muscular Atrophy* / genetics
  • Muscular Atrophy* / pathology
  • Mutation*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / metabolism
  • Zebrafish Proteins / genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins / metabolism*
  • Zebrafish* / anatomy & histology
  • Zebrafish* / physiology


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Zebrafish Proteins
  • noc3l protein, zebrafish