Sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial symbiosis: bidirectional signaling in skeletal muscle

Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2009 Jan;37(1):29-35. doi: 10.1097/JES.0b013e3181911fa4.


In mammalian skeletal muscle, an intimate association between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and mitochondria results in a symbiotic and privileged bidirectional communication between these organelles. Orthograde signaling reflects SR calcium (Ca) release stimulating mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production via excitation-metabolism coupling. Retrograde signaling involves mitochondrial inhibition of local SR Ca release by controlling the redox environment of the Ca release unit.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / biosynthesis
  • Animals
  • Calcium Signaling*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Muscle Fatigue
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Physical Conditioning, Animal
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism*


  • Adenosine Triphosphate