Differences in distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms among intracellular pattern recognition receptors in pigs

Immunogenetics. 2009 Feb;61(2):153-60. doi: 10.1007/s00251-008-0350-y. Epub 2008 Dec 20.


Pathogens localized extracellularly or incorporated into endosomes are recognized mainly by Toll-like receptors, whereas pathogens and pathogen-derived molecules that invade into the cytoplasm of host cells typically are recognized by intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-like helicases (RLHs) and nucleotide-binding oligmerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), which belong to the RLH family, recognize viral genomic RNA, whereas NOD2, a member of the NLR family, responds to microbial peptidoglycans. These receptors may play an important role in pig opportunistic infectious diseases, such as pneumonia and diarrhea, which markedly impair livestock productivity, such that polymorphisms of these receptor genes are potential targets of pig breeding to increase disease resistance. Here, we report single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine DDX58, IFIH1, and NOD2, which encode RIG-I, MDA5, and NOD2, respectively. Interestingly, compared with DDX58 and IFIH1, NOD2 abounded in nonsynonymous SNPs both throughout the coding sequence and in sequences encoding domains important for ligand recognition, such as helicase domains for RIG-I and MDA5 and leucine-rich repeats in NOD2. These differences in the distribution of SNPs in intracellular PRRs may parallel the diversity of their ligands, which include nucleic acids and peptidoglycans.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Animals
  • Asia
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases / genetics*
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases / metabolism
  • Europe
  • Ligands
  • Lipopeptides / metabolism
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein / genetics*
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein / metabolism
  • Peptidoglycan / metabolism
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / genetics*
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / metabolism
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid
  • Species Specificity
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Sus scrofa / classification
  • Sus scrofa / genetics*


  • Ligands
  • Lipopeptides
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein
  • Peptidoglycan
  • Proteins
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • leucine-rich repeat proteins
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases