Type 1 diabetes, the A1 milk hypothesis and vitamin D deficiency

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Feb;83(2):149-56. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2008.11.010. Epub 2008 Dec 18.


The 'A1' genetic variant of beta-casein in milk has been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The keystone piece of supporting evidence is an ecological study positively correlating the incidence of T1D with amount of A1 beta-casein consumption per capita. Of relevance, A1 beta-casein consumption is also positively correlated with latitude, itself implicated in T1D through vitamin D deficiency. Ecological and biological evidence convincingly implicate vitamin D deficiency in T1D. Latitude is a confounder of the ecological data that underpin the hypothesis that A1 beta-casein in cow's milk is a causative factor in T1D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caseins / adverse effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / etiology*
  • Ecology
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • Milk / adverse effects*
  • Protein Isoforms / adverse effects
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*


  • Caseins
  • Protein Isoforms