Purpose: Transapical aortic valve implantation is a new minimally invasive technique for beating heart, off-pump, aortic valve implantation in high-risk patients.
Description: The procedure involves antegrade aortic valve implantation using an oversizing technique with direct access and accurate positioning of a stent-based transcatheter xenograft. Procedural steps include placement of femoral arterial and venous access wires, anterolateral mini-thoracotomy, epicardial pacing, and apical pursestring suture placement. Valve positioning is performed under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance during rapid ventricular pacing.
Evaluation: Patient screening, especially regarding native aortic annulus diameter and pattern of calcification, is essential for success. Since imaging is crucial, implantations are optimally performed in a hybrid operative theater by an experienced team of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, and anesthetists.
Conclusions: The aim of this article is to outline the technical aspects of the new technique of minimally invasive transapical aortic valve implantation.