This study aims to investigate the expression and significance of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 in human gastric adenocarcinoma progression and prognosis. The expression of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 was detected in the cell lines and tissues of gastric adenocarcinoma. Different expression levels of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 were found in two cell lines. The expression of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 was significantly higher in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues than in normal tissues. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation of EphA2 expression with the depth of tumor invasion, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages, and lymph node metastasis. EphrinA-1 over-expression was significantly correlated with TNM stages and lymph node metastasis, while EphA2 expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor of postoperative gastric adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, the increased expression of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 plays an important role in the progression of human gastric adenocarcinoma, in which elevated EphA2 expression is an independent factor that indicates poor prognosis in postoperative gastric adenocarcinoma.