Objective: To localize the superficial peroneal nerve in surface of the leg and to provide a safety surgical approach to the fibula.
Methods: Sixty-six adult legs preserved by 4% formaldehyde solution were studied involving 42 male and 24 female with the average age of 69 years old ranging from 37 to 88 years. There were 35 cases in left and 31 in right. According to the common lateral surgical approach to the fibula, the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches were dissected in 66 embalmed leg-ankle-foot specimens. The specimens were observed and measured.
Results: The superficial peroneal nerve branched from the common peroneal nerve near the anterolateral aspect of the neck of the fibula, transversing through the muscle, deep fascia and superficial fascia. In 12 cases of specimens, superficial fibular nerve extended to the foot with no branches, in 50 cases of specimens it branched out into two before piercing the deep fascia, in the rest 4 cases of specimens, it branched out into two before piercing the muscle.
Conclusion: To avoid injuring the superficial peroneal nerve, the surgical approach to the 2/3 upper part of the fibula is at posterior crural septum, to the 1/3 lower part of the fibula is at anterior crural septum.