Signals arising from antigen-presenting cells

Curr Opin Immunol. 1991 Jun;3(3):361-72. doi: 10.1016/0952-7915(91)90039-4.


It has been customary to consider that antigen-presenting cells provide, in addition to the presented antigen, a second or co-stimulatory signal that leads to T-cell growth and effector function. The recent literature indicates that this two-signal notion oversimplifies the function of antigen-presenting cells. Instead it is useful to consider four groups of events: the formation of peptide-MHC complexes, the role of soluble cytokines, the action of antigen-presenting cell-T cell molecular couples distinct from the receptor for peptide MHC, and the function of antigen-presenting cells in situ.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology*
  • Cell Membrane / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Protein Sorting Signals / immunology
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Protein Sorting Signals