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, 17 (6), 820-30

Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe

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Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe

Vincenza Battaglia et al. Eur J Hum Genet.

Erratum in

  • Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 Jun;17(6):853

Abstract

The debate concerning the mechanisms underlying the prehistoric spread of farming to Southeast Europe is framed around the opposing roles of population movement and cultural diffusion. To investigate the possible involvement of local people during the transition of agriculture in the Balkans, we analysed patterns of Y-chromosome diversity in 1206 subjects from 17 population samples, mainly from Southeast Europe. Evidence from three Y-chromosome lineages, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, make it possible to distinguish between Holocene Mesolithic forager and subsequent Neolithic range expansions from the eastern Sahara and the Near East, respectively. In particular, whereas the Balkan microsatellite variation associated to J-M241 correlates with the Neolithic period, those related to E-V13 and I-M423 Balkan Y chromosomes are consistent with a late Mesolithic time frame. In addition, the low frequency and variance associated to I-M423 and E-V13 in Anatolia and the Middle East, support an European Mesolithic origin of these two clades. Thus, these Balkan Mesolithic foragers with their own autochthonous genetic signatures, were destined to become the earliest to adopt farming, when it was subsequently introduced by a cadre of migrating farmers from the Near East. These initial local converted farmers became the principal agents spreading this economy using maritime leapfrog colonization strategies in the Adriatic and transmitting the Neolithic cultural package to other adjacent Mesolithic populations. The ensuing range expansions of E-V13 and I-M423 parallel in space and time the diffusion of Neolithic Impressed Ware, thereby supporting a case of cultural diffusion using genetic evidence.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Geographic location of the studied samples: 1, Greeks; 2, Macedonian Greeks; 3, Albanians; 4, Albanians from Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); 5, Bosniacs; 6, Bosnia-Croats; 7, Bosnia-Serbs; 8, Croats; 9, Croats from Osijek; 10, Slovenians; 11, northeast Italians; 12, Hungarians; 13, Czechs; 14, Poles; 15, Ukrainians; 16, Georgians; and 17, Balkarians.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and their frequencies (%) in the examined populations. Nomenclature and haplogroup labelling according to the Y Chromosome Consortium (http://ycc.biosci.arizona.edu/) updated according to Karafet et al. *Paragroups: Y chromosomes not defined by any phylogenetic downstream-reported and -examined mutation. aIntrapopulation haplogroup diversity. The terminal markers of haplogroups E-V12 and E-V13 (V32 and V27, respectively) were typed but did not show any variation.
Figure 3
Figure 3
PC analysis performed using haplogroup frequencies in the populations of this study. Gr, Greeks; Mac-Gr, Macedonian Greeks; Alb-A, Albanians; Alb-F, Albanians from FYROM; Sr-B, Bosnia-Serbs; Bs-B, Bosniacs; Cr-B, Bosnia-Croats; Cr-O, Croats from Osijek; Cr-H, Croats of Croatia; Slo, Slovenians; NE-I, northeast Italians; Hun, Hungarians; Cz, Czechs; Pl, Poles; Uk, Ukrainians; Geo, Georgians; Bk, Balkarians. Thirty-four percent of the total variance is represented. Insert illustrates the contribution of each haplogroup.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Frequency (left) and variance (right) distributions of the main Y-chromosome haplogroups, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, observed in this survey. Frequency data are reported in Figure 2, variance data are relative to the examined microsatellite reported in the Supplementary Table S2. We acknowledge that interpolated spatial frequency surfaces should be viewed with caution because of sample size. • Data from this study. Frequency and variance values were assigned to sample-collection places (dots). Population samples (geographically close) with less than five observations were pooled and the corresponding variance assigned to a middle position of the pooled sample locations. +Data from the literature., , , , , , , , , , ,

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