Genetic polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways and breast cancer risk and survival

Methods Mol Biol. 2009;472:265-77. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_11.


The transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling pathway plays a critical role in breast cancer development and progression. Limited data from human studies, however, are currently available to link biomarkers in this pathway directly to the risk and survival of breast cancer. Most of the previous epidemiologic studies have focused on evaluating polymorphisms in the TGFB1 gene (T+29C, rs1982073) and the TGFBR1 gene (9A/6A), and the results have been inconsistent. The present review summarizes epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of genetic polymorphisms in the TGF beta pathway genes with breast cancer risk and survival and provides rationale and new approaches to continuing the research in this area.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Risk Factors
  • Signal Transduction / genetics*
  • Survival Rate
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta