Trifolium L.--a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile

Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):439-46. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2709.


Plants from the genus Trifolium have been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. In Turkish folk medicine, for example, some Trifolium species are used for their expectorant, analgesic, antiseptic properties and also to treat rheumatic aches. Some species are also grown as pasture crops for animals in the Mediterranean. The high quercetin concentration and soyasaponin occurrence make the seeds of some Trifolium species a potential source of health beneficial phytochemicals for use in human nutrition. However, Trifolium pratense has also gained popularity due to research into its use for the treatment for menopausal symptoms. This paper provides an overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Trifolium species.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Isoflavones / pharmacology
  • Medicine, Traditional
  • Menopause / drug effects
  • Quercetin / pharmacology*
  • Saponins / pharmacology*
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Trifolium / chemistry*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Isoflavones
  • Saponins
  • Quercetin