We studied changes in the color appearance of a chromatic stimulus as it underwent simultaneous contrast with a more luminous surround. Three normal trichromats provided color-naming descriptions for a 10 cd/m2 monochromatic field while a broadband white annulus surround ranged in luminance from 0.2 cd/m2 to 200 cd/m2. Descriptions of the chromatic field included Red, Green, Blue, Yellow, White, and Black or their combinations. The naming frequencies for each color/surround were used to calculate measures of similarity among the stimuli. Multidimensional scaling analysis of these subjective similarities resulted in a four-dimensional color space with two chromatic axes, red-green and blue-yellow, and two achromatic axes, revealing separate qualities of blackness/lightness and saturation. Contrast-induced darkening of the chromatic field was found to be accompanied by shifts in both hue and saturation. Hue shifts were similar to the Bezold-Brücke shift; shifts in saturation were also quantified. A stage model is proposed to account for the relationships among blackness induction and the inherent nonlinearities in chromatic and achromatic processing.