Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated molecular marker for prostate cancer. A series of glutamate-urea (Glu-urea-X) heterodimeric inhibitors of PSMA were designed and synthesized where X = epsilon-N-(o-I, m-I, p-I, p-Br, o-Cl, m-Cl, p-Cl, p-F, H)-benzyl-Lys and epsilon-(p-I, p-Br, p-Cl, p-F, H)-phenylureido-Lys. The affinities for PSMA were determined by screening in a competitive binding assay. PSMA binding of the benzyllysine series was significantly affected by the nature of the halogen substituent (IC(50) values, Cl < I = Br << F = H) and the ring position of the halogen atom (IC(50) values, p-I < o-I << m-I). The halogen atom had little affect on the binding affinity in the para substituted phenylureido-Lys series. Two lead iodine compounds were radiolabeled with (123)I and (131)I and demonstrated specific PSMA binding on human prostate cancer cells, warranting evaluation as radioligands for the detection, staging, and monitoring of prostate cancer.