Background: With use of data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry, we performed this multicenter, prospective, observational study to assess the epidemiologic characters and outcomes of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients.
Methods: Sixteen medical centers from North America reported data on adult HSCT recipients with proven or probable IFI during the period July 2004 through September 2007. The distribution of IFIs and rates of survival at 6 and 12 weeks after diagnosis were studied. We used logistic regression models to determine risk factors associated with 6-week mortality for allogeneic HSCT recipients with invasive aspergillosis (IA).
Results: Two hundred thirty-four adult HSCT recipients with a total of 250 IFIs were included in this study. IA (59.2%) was the most frequent IFI, followed by invasive candidiasis (24.8%), zygomycosis (7.2%), and IFI due to other molds (6.8%). Voriconazole was the most frequently administered agent (68.4%); amphotericin B deoxycholate was administered to a few patients (2.1%). Ninety-three (46.7%) of 199 HSCT recipients with known outcome had died by week 12. The 6-week survival rate was significantly greater for patients with IA than for those with invasive candidiasis and for those with IFI due to the Zygomycetes or other molds (P < .07). The 6-week mortality rate for HSCT recipients with IA was 21.5%. At 6 weeks, there was a trend toward a worse outcome among allogeneic HSCT recipients with IA who received myeloablative conditioning (P = .07); absence of mechanical ventilation or/and hemodialysis (P = .01) were associated with improved survival.
Conclusions: IA remains the most commonly identified IFI among HSCT recipients, but rates of survival in persons with IA appear to have improved, compared with previously reported data. Invasive candidiasis and IFI due to molds other than Aspergillus species remain a significant problem in HSCT recipients.