Thin basement membrane nephropathy is one of the main causes of hematuria in both children and adults. It is often associated with a family history and its true incidence is unknown. Accurate diagnosis of thin basement membrane nephropathy relies on the presence of attenuated glomerular basement membranes, a finding that can be appreciated only by examination in the electron microscope. In Cyprus the department of electron microscopy has received 990 consecutive renal biopsies for diagnosis. The aim of this study is to define the incidence of thin basement membrane nephropathy in this population sample based on the results of electron microscopy.