Adipose tissue development and function play a central role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndromes. Here, we show that chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) plays a pivotal role in adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. COUP-TFII is expressed in the early stages of white adipocyte development. COUP-TFII heterozygous mice (COUP-TFII(+/-)) have much less white adipose tissue (WAT) than wild-type mice (COUP-TFII(+/+)). COUP-TFII(+/-) mice display a decreased expression of key regulators for WAT development. Knockdown COUP-TFII in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in an increased expression of Wnt10b, while chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Wnt10b is a direct target of COUP-TFII. Moreover, COUP-TFII(+/-) mice have increased mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT, and COUP-TFII(+/-) mice have improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. Thus, COUP-TFII regulates adipogenesis by regulating the key molecules in adipocyte development and can serve as a target for regulating energy metabolism.