Cytokine gene polymorphisms and BALF cytokine levels in interstitial lung diseases

Respir Med. 2009 May;103(5):773-9. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2008.11.006. Epub 2008 Dec 30.


Background: The aim of our study is to investigate correlations of T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokine gene polymorphisms and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytokine values in interstitial lung diseases (ILD).

Methods: In 16 sarcoidosis, 7 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) patients we evaluated IL-1 alpha, -1R, -1RA, -2, -4, -4R alpha, -6, -10, -12, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in peripheral blood, and MCP-1,MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, RANTES, ENA-78, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-1 alpha, IL-1RA, IL-1 beta, -2, -4, -5, -6, -8, -10, -17, TNF-alpha, Tpo and VEGF values in BALF.

Results: We found higher TNF-alpha values in IL-1R pst 1970 TT homozygotes regardless of diagnosis (p=0.0126). In the sarcoidosis group IL-4R alpha(+1902)AA and IL-10(-1082)G allele correlated with higher BALF ENA-78 levels (p=0.0258, p=0.0230). In the HP group the IL-6(-174)CG and IL-6(nt565)AG correlated with higher ENA-78 BALF levels (p=0.0253). In the IPF group the IL-1 beta +3962 CC homozygotes had lower IL-1RA BALF values (p=0.046). BALF chemokine values did not differ between ILD subgroups, except for IL-8, which was higher in stage III sarcoidosis patients compared to stage I.

Conclusion: Our results show a probable influence of gene polymorphisms, namely IL-4R alpha and IL-10 on ENA-78 BALF levels in sarcoidosis, IL-6 on ENA-78 BALF levels in HP and IL-1-beta on IL-1RA BALF values in the IPF group. The TNF-alpha BALF values correlated with IL-1R pst 1970 gene polymorphisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic / metabolism
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry*
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis / metabolism
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary / metabolism


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines