Nox4 NADPH oxidase mediates oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by TNF-alpha in cerebral vascular endothelial cells

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009 Mar;296(3):C422-32. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00381.2008. Epub 2008 Dec 31.


Inflammatory brain disease may damage cerebral vascular endothelium leading to cerebral blood flow dysregulation. The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) from newborn pigs. We investigated contribution of major cellular sources of reactive oxygen species to endothelial inflammatory response. Nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase inhibitors (N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine and allopurinol) had no effect, while mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors (CCCP, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and rotenone) attenuated TNF-alpha-induced superoxide (O(2)(*-)) and apoptosis. NADPH oxidase inhibitors (diphenylene iodonium and apocynin) greatly reduced TNF-alpha-evoked O(2)(*-) generation and apoptosis. TNF-alpha rapidly increased NADPH oxidase activity in CMVEC. Nox4, the cell-specific catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, is highly expressed in CMVEC, contributes to basal O(2)(*-) production, and accounts for a burst of oxidative stress in response to TNF-alpha. Nox4 small interfering RNA, but not Nox2, knockdown prevented oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by TNF-alpha in CMVEC. Nox4 is colocalized with HO-2, the constitutive isoform of heme oxygenase (HO), which is critical for endothelial protection against TNF-alpha toxicity. The products of HO activity, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO, as a CO-releasing molecule, CORM-A1), inhibited Nox4-generated O(2)(*-) and apoptosis caused by TNF-alpha stimulation. We conclude that Nox4 is the primary source of inflammation- and TNF-alpha-induced oxidative stress leading to apoptosis in brain endothelial cells. The ability of CO and bilirubin to combat TNF-alpha-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting Nox4 activity and/or by O(2)(*-) scavenging, taken together with close intracellular compartmentalization of HO-2 and Nox4 in cerebral vascular endothelium, may contribute to HO-2 cytoprotection against inflammatory cerebrovascular disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Apoptosis* / drug effects
  • Bilirubin / metabolism
  • Carbon Monoxide / metabolism
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cerebral Cortex / blood supply*
  • Cytoprotection
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Endothelial Cells / enzymology*
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) / metabolism
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Microvessels / enzymology
  • Microvessels / pathology
  • NADPH Oxidases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • NADPH Oxidases / genetics
  • NADPH Oxidases / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress* / drug effects
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Swine
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)
  • heme oxygenase-2
  • NADPH Oxidases
  • Bilirubin