High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene

Nat Nanotechnol. 2009 Jan;4(1):25-9. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2008.329. Epub 2008 Nov 9.


The electronic properties of graphene, such as high charge carrier concentrations and mobilities, make it a promising candidate for next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In particular, electrons and holes can undergo ballistic transport on the sub-micrometre scale in graphene and do not suffer from the scale limitations of current MOSFET technologies. However, it is still difficult to produce single-layer samples of graphene and bulk processing has not yet been achieved, despite strenuous efforts to develop a scalable production method. Here, we report a versatile solution-based process for the large-scale production of single-layer chemically converted graphene over the entire area of a silicon/SiO(2) wafer. By dispersing graphite oxide paper in pure hydrazine we were able to remove oxygen functionalities and restore the planar geometry of the single sheets. The chemically converted graphene sheets that were produced have the largest area reported to date (up to 20 x 40 microm), making them far easier to process. Field-effect devices have been fabricated by conventional photolithography, displaying currents that are three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for chemically produced graphene. The size of these sheets enables a wide range of characterization techniques, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, to be performed on the same specimen.

Publication types

  • Letter
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.